Combat Resolution (excerpted)
[8.9] Combat Resolution
Each unit in Killing Ground consists of a number of "steps" of strength, which indicate the amount of losses that the unit may take in combat before becoming eliminated from the game entirely. A step loss will reduce the unit's Combat Strength (or in some cases, eliminate the unit from play). Most of the units in Killing Ground consist of three steps of strength. Some small combat units may consist of only two steps or one.
[8.91] Below is a summary of the number of steps that each
type of unit in the game possesses:
A. Each combat unit whose original strength chit has a Combat Strength of three or more has three steps of strength. When such a unit takes a one step loss, its strength chit is flipped over to its reduced side indicating this loss and displaying a smaller combat strength than the original. When the unit must take a two step loss (or the unit takes a one step loss after having previously taken a one step loss), the strength chit is removed from play and the parent combat unit is flipped to its "cadre" side (see 7.22). This cadre is now considered a combat unit worth one step and a combat strength of one. When a unit with three steps of strength loses three steps in combat, the strength chit is removed from play and the parent combat unit is eliminated.
B. Each combat unit whose original strength chit has a Combat Strength of two or less has two steps of strength. When such a unit takes a one step loss, the strength chit is removed from play (see xx.x) and the parent combat unit is flipped to its "cadre" side. (Note: When flipped over, a unit's strength chit that indicates a zero strength is not considered to have a step of strength.) When a unit of two steps of strength loses two steps in combat, its strength chit is removed from play and the parent combat unit is eliminated.
C. All HQ units, cadre units, artillery and some battalion size units only consist of one step of strength (some battalions have two steps). These units have their Combat Strength printed on them and do not use strength chits to determine their combat value. If forced to take a step loss in combat, they are eliminated from play. Battalions with two steps are flipped over for the first step loss and eliminated after it takes a second step loss.
[8.92] All combat results are expressed in terms of steps lost, hexes retreated and/or disorganization. The result to the attacker is to the left of the slash (in light type) while the result to the defender is to the right of the slash (in bold). An arrow symbol (F or E) indicates the owning player must retreat. A "D" result denotes that all participating units, of the owning player, are disorganized.
[8.93] All numbers in the combat result which are next to the
slash (left or right) are the mandatory step losses for the owning
player's units. Reading outward from the slash, the number after
the retreat symbol is the indicated number of hexes that the affected
unit(s) must retreat and /or may take as a number of step losses.
All attacking units are subject to any result left of the slash
in light type. All defending units are subject to any result right
of the slash in bold type. Thus if a player chooses to retreat,
all of his units involved in the combat must retreat. If a player
chooses (or must) take step losses, any one or more of his units
involved in the combat may be reduced as long as the total number
of steps lost is equal to the requirement.
The above result is read as follows: The attacker must loose 1 step and all the attacking player's participating units are disorganized. The defender must loose 1 step and retreat two hexes (or take 1 additional step and retreat 1 hex or take 2 addition steps and remain in the hex).
[8.94] Step losses, if any, are taken by the owning player (exception see 8.96). Losses must first be taken from units participating in the combat. If there are not enough steps available in these units, then the remaining losses are taken by units in the hex that did not participate in the combat. Note: Although the nonparticipating regiment may add its cadre strength to the total strength of the stack, it is the last unit to be affected by any combat result.
[8.95] When an attacking player is required to take step losses due to combat, the first step must be taken from the participating unit with the highest unmodified combat strength or the highest unmodified effectivness rating unless the defender chooses the loss (see 8.96).If the first step loss was an armor type, the second step loss must be from a unit with the highest combat strength (Exception: If the attacker used Accelerated Effort, he may take any subsiquent step losses from any participating unit. The defending player may always take his step losses from any participating defending units in the stack.
[8.96] If the defending stack had Combined Arms at the start
of the combat and did not disorganize during the combat, the defending
player may specify the type of unit the attacker must take as
the first step loss; either infantry type (including mech and
motorized) or armor types (any type of armor unit including armor
· If the defender is a non-disorganized German stack in a bocage/hedgerow hex, the German player may specify the type of unit the attacker must take as the first step loss.
· If a tank destroyer battalion (TD) participated in the attack, the first loss to the attacker is an armor type, it must be the TD unit.
[8.10] Attritional Losses and Accelerated
[8.10.1] Attritional Loss
Both the attacker or defender may cause an additional step loss to the opposing side when taking step losses in lieu of the retreat requirement. This step loss is referred to as Attritional Loss and is only applied to the side that "won" the combat (the non-retreating side). After the combat results have been applied, if "the loosing player" (the retreating side) fulfills his total retreat result by taking steps, he rolls 1 die. If the number shown on the die is less than or equal to the highest effectiveness rating of any of his units, the opposing player must loose 1 step from one of his participating units. This step loss is of the owning player's choosing.
[8.10.2] For calculating Attritional Loss, armor and infantry battalions have an Effectiveness of 2. All other battalion sized units and artillery units have a 1 Effectiveness.
[8.10.3] A unit (or units) defending in a city hex, may convert its Attitional Loss into a one hex retreat. German units defending in a bocage or hedgerow hex, may convert the Attitional Loss into a one hex retreat.
[8.10.4] Accelerated Effort
After the combat odds ratio has been calculated (including all shifts) the attacker may use Accelerated Effort to increase the odds ratio further. To do so, the attacking player must first reduce one of the attacking units by 1 step and rolls a die. The number shown on the die is then compared to the unmodified Effectiveness Rating of the unit that took the step. The attacker may shift the combat odds ratio to the right on the CRT according to the following:
E 2 if the number on the die is less than or equal than the Effectiveness Rating of the unit
E 1 if the number on the die is greater than the Effectiveness Rating of the unit
E 0 if the number on the die is 3 greater than the Effectiveness Rating of the unit
Only infantry type units (including mech or motorized infantry) that possess an Effectiveness Rating may be used for Accelerated Effort an attack-cadres and battalions may not be used.